Transylvanian Review 2024-06-15T21:15:15+03:00 Vasili Salajan Open Journal Systems <p>The journal publishes original papers in all areas of science, engineering and technology (Sport Sciences, Accounting, Medicine and Physics, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, law scope, Agricultural Sciences, Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Psychological and Educational Sciences, Statistics, Management, Economics and Financial Economics).</p> <p>Online ISSN: 1221-1249</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Educational and socio-economic strategies for the sustainability of Iberian Mediterranean grasslands 2024-04-09T13:27:00+03:00 Eusebio Cano Carmona Cano Ortiz Ana Pinar Fuents Jose Carlos Musarella Carmelo Maria <p>In the study of Mediterranean grasslands, field students identified two large groups of grasses belonging to two phytosociological classes: <em>Stellarietea mediae</em>, of interest as a CO<sup>2</sup> sink and as a pasture for cattle and horses, and <em>Poetea bulbosae</em>, of great importance for sheep farming. Coverage of the study plots is between 60-100%. <em>Hordeum leporinum</em> communities absorb high amounts of CO<sup>2 </sup>and can support 1.8 cows/ha/year, while Poa bulbosa communities can support 25 sheep/ha/year. Both classes are identified and studied in the field and in the laboratory by the students of the double master's degree Olive and Olive Oil and Teaching, ESO, Baccalaureate, Vocational Training or Language Teaching. The student in the field learns to take data, and then in an analytical phase in the laboratory to differentiate the inventories on the basis of floristic composition, so he has been able to differentiate the alliances of the two classes studied in depth, as is the case of <em>Hordeion leporini</em> and <em>Trifolio subterranei-Periballion</em>. An active didactic methodology is applied, in which the students assimilate 100% of the contents, and obtain a training that enables them to defend the conservation of Mediterranean grasslands.&nbsp; In short, this work combines botany with education to achieve a sustainable current development, but also to ensure the future of the planet. Therefore, we have focused this work on grasslands and educational strategies to train future environmental managers, achieving 100% success.</p> 2024-04-09T12:40:18+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Chromolaena odorata L. An Invasive Alien Species: As a Destructive Weed and A Prospective Drug 2024-06-05T10:56:58+03:00 Prusty Smita Mishra R. K. Biswal A. K. <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><em><span style="font-size: 11.5pt; line-height: 150%;">Chromolaena odorata </span></em><span style="font-size: 11.5pt; line-height: 150%;">(L.) King and Robinson (Asteraceae), formerly known as <em>Eupatorium odoratua </em>L., is a perennial weed. <em>Chromolaena odorata </em>L., (Asteraceae) is considered as an invasive alien plant species as it has successfully invaded open/degraded forests and forests plantations, fallow/wastelands, roadsides and other open areas in high rainfall regions of India. It grows in almost pure stands and are better competitors as compared to indigenous plant species as a result it brings down the diversity of the native plant communities invaded by it. However, <em>Chromolaena odorata </em>L. also exhibits anti‑inflammatory, antipyretic, anal­gesic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and numerous other relevant medicinal properties on an appreciable scale, and is also well known in some parts of the world as a traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments. This review aims to summarize the role of C.<em> odorata </em>L. both as an invasive alien species (IAS) as well as its wound healing activities of biological systems, which are crucial for its use as a potential future drug design, development and application for the treatment of wounds.</span></p> 2024-05-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Enhancing Accounting Education through Gamification: A Flow Theory Perspective 2024-06-15T21:15:15+03:00 Yu-Fen Chen <p>Accounting education focuses on delivering knowledge to students. However, most students feel bored and gain passive knowledge because they are not engaged in active learning strategies. Based on the flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996), the study postulates that the use of a board game could change the way students learn and rebuild the student's learning experience. The aim of this study is to explore the importance of gamification in improving student motivation and engagement in the learning process. This study looks into the impact of some characteristics of games, such as concentration, clarity, feedback, challenge, autonomy, social interaction, and perceived learning, on students’ learning flow. The research results show the benefits of gamification and provide some ideas on how to implement it in education. It is found that the subject can be taught with recourse, i.e. AccountingPairs board game, and become an effective addition to the traditional teaching method. By concluding that the educational games that were tested have an effective impact on student’s motivation, flow, concentration, feedback, challenge, autonomy attitude, interaction, and perceived learning of Accounting knowledge. The results also show that the gamification do enhance learning by combining traditional classes with the playing of such games, and make learning Accounting easier. The author suggests that educational games may be an effective means to create conditions for the flow, which make game-based learning easier. The games, AccountingPairs, used in the classroom process reduce the boredom factor and increase students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, concentration and interest in learning.</p> 2024-06-15T21:15:14+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Improved prediction of stock market trends in Saudi Arabia by combining artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic techniques 2024-05-29T16:14:54+03:00 Khalil A. Alruwaitee Abdelgalal O. I. Abaker Hago E. M. Ali Sharaf Obaid ALI Abdalla S. Mahmoud Azhari A. Elhag <p>An integrated prediction model designed for the KSA Stock Exchange utilizes Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Fuzzy Logic approaches. The analysis examines thedaily closin g prices of the Al Rajhi share index in the Saudi stock market index from January 15, 2020, to July 15, 2020, to identify important market moves and patterns throughout this timeframe. The suggested model is rigorously assessed utilizing essential statistical metrics such as R-squared, Mean Absolute Percentage Error(MAPE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Squared Error (MSE). The indicators together offer a strong evaluation of the model's accuracy and predictive capability, providing significant insights for investors and stakeholders in navigating the changing Saudi Arabian stock market.</p> 2024-04-09T12:07:52+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Methodology of educational supervisors using cloud computing applications to guide the training of mathematics teachers in the adoption of the authentic assessment process and electronic achievement files 2024-05-20T19:02:52+03:00 Fahed Moossa Anas Albahri Ali Bin Almur Bin Said Alsaaidi Rahim Kouki <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> our research article aims at a methodology for educational supervisors who use Cloud Computing applications to train mathematics teachers in the authentic assessment process and management of electronic achievement files. By integrating these technological tools, supervisors offer teachers interactive and personalized training, thus facilitating their understanding and implementation of authentic assessment methods.</p> <p>Cloud computing applications enable supervisors to share educational resources, case studies, and real-world examples of authentic assessment with teachers, fostering a deeper understanding of assessment concepts and best practices.</p> <p>Additionally, these tools make it easy to create, track, and manage electronic student success files, providing teachers with an effective way to document and track student progress over time. Instructional supervisors can provide guidelines and examples for collecting and analyzing data, as well as strategies for using this information to tailor instruction and meet individual student needs.</p> <p>By combining cloud computing applications with authentic assessment methods, instructional supervisors provide mathematics teachers with the tools needed to meaningfully assess student skills, promote critical thinking, and foster a dynamic, focused learning environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-05-15T13:48:50+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Artificial intelligence and e-learning in African library schools: expectations of library and information science educators 2024-05-23T16:23:42+03:00 Justina Ngozi EKERE Oyemike Victor BENSON <p>The study aimed at highlighting the expectations of library and information science educators towards integration of artificial intelligence in e-learning processes in library schools in African countries. The narrative content analysis was adopted with extensive literature review. The concept of AI, artificial intelligence in library and information centres, rationalization for e-learning in library schools were well articulated in the paper. Factors affecting the incorporation of artificial intelligence to e-learning in library schools unwillingness by library educators to embrace changes, poor power supply, unavailability of digital infrastructures, and lack of digital knowledge. Expectations of Library and Information Science educators in library schools in AI era include the following<strong>:</strong> acquisition of new digital skills, complying with AI ethics in education, partnership for positive change, formulate a viable policy guideline, developing AI literacy, change in teaching practice, investment in digital infrastructure and its accountability and possession of smart devices. In line with the discoveries, improvement and development of infrastructural facility, formulation of sound AI policies, partnership with stakeholders, recruitment of smart librarians and digital literacy were recommended. The paper have exposed the need for library science educators and librarians in library schools to be repositioned for undeniable changes in the landscape of librarianship, teaching and learning with reference to AI tools and applications. The findings can be used by library administrators in making ICT related and e-learning policy that would guide the process of integrating AI tools to e-learning in African library schools. The study though using a theoretical approach has not been carried out before, thus it is a contribution to the frontiers of knowledge in this novel area. It also opens the frontiers for further empirical evidences from the developing countries.</p> 2024-05-23T16:23:42+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Prediction of safety factors on slopes by using machine learning multilayer perceptron and decision tree techniques 2024-05-30T09:49:52+03:00 Mohammed Mnzool <p>A more accurate strategy for measuring and predicting slope safety and risk was the study's goal. This study used machine learning methods to create accurate forecast models for the earth slope factor of safety (F.S). Multilayer perceptron (MLP) and decision tree (DT) have been chosen for the analysis. These methods have been widely used in geotechnical analysis and domain stability because of their unique benefits. We chose MLP, DT, and learning algorithms<br>as our core analytical approaches. The MLP and DT methods predicted the security component value as the main result of the earth slope mathematical models. In this study, 69.5 percent of the 105-group database was used to train the model, and 30.5% tested its accuracy. The controlled machine learning method-based decision tree (DT) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) computer models are used to analyze dump slope stability. SoftMax activates the output layer. The model summary showed 19.21 training cross-entropy errors and 11% erroneous predictions. The testing model had a 10.59 cross-entropy error and 21.9 wrong predictions. In the training classification phase, 36 viruses failed and two remained stable. This yields 94.7% accuracy. Testing classification yielded 18 failing viruses and 4 stable viruses. Maximum tree depth is 3, minimum parent node cases are 100, and minimum child nodes are 50. MLP models<br>have superior accuracy, precision, and recall than DT models, which have 0.676, 0.604, and 0.711. The results summary reveals 3 nodes, 2 terminal nodes, and 1 depth. Therefore, MLP models outperform DT models.</p> 2024-04-09T12:36:56+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Discharge of NCA battery using copper strip in salt water 2024-04-09T12:54:02+03:00 Erdenebold Urtnasan Jei-Pil Wang <p>The application of Li-ion batteries has been growing with the e-mobility revolution of computers, cellular phones and electric vehicles. As this revolution accompanies, manufacturers consider recycling wasted Li-ion batteries an important resource of raw material for manufacturing the lithium-ion battery. During the disposal, transport and crushing for recycling of the battery, it is necessary to crush for separation into black mass, plastic and metal parts, but there is a risk of explosion because of the residual voltage of the battery. Therefore, the discharge process is an important step in the recycling. This work aimed to investigate a new method to discharge the cylinder-type battery using salt water solution with the copper conductor that contacted and no-contacted with the battery. A gap value between the battery and copper conductor was a variable factor in the discharge process. The salt water called as electrolyte solution in the gap caused an electrical short circuit and accelerated discharging. During the discharge process, the battery cap and valve corroded when the battery did not come into contact with the copper conductor, causing the elements of the battery’s anode and cathode to dissolve into the solution. But, the voltage drop reached nearly 99%. However, the battery did not corrode when it contacted the copper during discharge, and the voltage drop reached approximately 90% after 8 hours with a 2 mm gap. Here, we report the battery discharge based on an electrochemical reaction, schematic diagram, and chemical analysis of the precipitate generated during the discharge test.</p> 2024-04-09T12:54:01+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review PREDICTION OF NEW OSTEOPOROSIS CASES USING TIME SERIES AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY 2024-06-13T14:15:04+03:00 Afrah Al-Bossly Abdelgalal O. I. Abaker Nuzaiha Mohamed Zahra Idreis Mahamoud M. Aripov Azhari A. Elhag <p>Osteoporosis stands as a significant public health concern characterized by diminished bone density and heightened susceptibility to fractures, affecting over 200 million individuals globally. Recent statistics from the International Osteoporosis Foundation indicate that approximately 33% of women aged 50 and above and 20% of males are at risk of experiencing osteoporotic fractures during their lifetime. This study aims to juxtapose the predictive efficacy of time series models and artificial neural networks to enhance the early detection of osteoporosis cases. Methodologically, the research involves preprocessing and standardization of datasets to optimize their suitability for machine learning applications. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) tailored for osteoporosis prediction demonstrates superior predictive performance when compared to conventional approaches such as the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. The enhanced predictive capabilities are substantiated through rigorous statistical analyses evaluating the model's accuracy. Osteoporosis data spanning from 1965 to 2023 are sourced from the official website of the Australian Government Institute of Health and Welfare.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review CONTEXTUALISNG POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND GENDER PRACTICE IN FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA 2024-05-23T16:14:21+03:00 Lere Amusan Ebenezer O. Oni <p>From Africa perspective, women are inferior and less powerful when compared to their male counterparts. The aim of the paper is to interrogate what should be the roles of women as against their natural domestic callings. In addition to being relegated to the background of domestic affairs, most women function as food producers, at least, at the subsistence level. These dual roles are mostly unpaid, under-valued, and therefore hardly accounted for in monetary terms. Rather than being beneficiaries of development having also contributed to it, women not only lack access to relevant inputs to be productive in agriculture, but also actually become major victims of associated untoward fallouts of developmental processes. Climate change-induced stresses and ecological damage in most African states exacerbate the burdens of women's role in agriculture. Materially and methodologically, anchored on feminism; with specific focus on liberal feminism, this paper investigates the agricultural role of women in Africa and the practices undermining it. The result of this paper is to guarantee region-wide food security through women empowerment as against the globalised system that is patriarchal in nature. &nbsp;The conclusion drawn from this paper is that issue of food security and the practice of agriculture should consider the plights of women and girls to ensure sustainable development holistically.</p> 2024-05-23T16:14:20+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Two classes of explicitly solvable sextic equations 2024-05-11T13:07:55+03:00 Francesco Calogero Farrin Payandeh <p>The generic monic polynomial of sixth degree features 6 a priori arbitrary coefficients. We show that if these 6 coefficients are appropriately defined—in two different ways—in terms of 5 arbitrary parameters, then the 6 roots of the corresponding polynomial can be explicitly computed in terms of radicals of these parameters. We also report the 2 constraints on the 6 coefficients of the polynomial implied by the fact that they are so defined in terms of 5 arbitrary parameters; as well as the explicit determination of these 5 parameters in terms of the 6 coefficients of the sextic polynomial.</p> 2024-05-11T13:07:53+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Explicitly solvable algebraic equations of degree 8 and 9 2024-05-11T13:27:54+03:00 Francesco Calogero Farrin Payandeh <p>The generic monic polynomial of degree N features N a priori arbitrary coefficients c<sub>m</sub> and N zeros zn . In this paper we limit consideration to N = 8 and N = 9 . We show that if the N —a priori arbitrary—coefficients cm of these polynomials are appropriately defined—as it were, a posteriori—in terms of 6 arbitrary parameters, then the N roots of these polynomials can be explicitly computed in terms of radicals of these 6 parameters. We also report the constraints on the N coefficients cm implied by the fact that they are so defined in terms of 6 arbitrary parameters; as well as the explicit determination of these 6 parameters in terms of the N coefficients c<sub>m</sub> .</p> 2024-05-11T13:27:52+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review EXPLICITLY SOLVABLE SYSTEMS OF FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH HOMOGENEOUS POLYNOMIAL RIGHT-HAND SIDES 2024-05-11T13:35:23+03:00 Francesco Calogero Farrin Payandeh <p>In this short paper we identify special systems of (an arbitrary number) N of first-order Difference Equations with nonlinear homogeneous polynomials of arbitrary degree M in their right-hand sides, which feature very simple explicit solutions. A novelty of these findings is to consider special systems characterized by constraints involving both their parameters and their initial data.</p> 2024-05-11T13:35:22+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review A class of solutions of the asymmetric May-Leonard model 2024-05-11T13:43:04+03:00 Farrin Payandeh Francesco Calogero <p>The asymmetric May-Leonard model is a prototypical system of 3 nonlinearly coupled first-order Ordinary Differential Equations with second-degree polynomial right-hand sides. In this short paper we identify a class of special solutions of this system which do not seem to have been previously advertised in spite of their rather elementary character.</p> 2024-05-11T13:43:03+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Augmented reality and Mathematics Education: Application of augmented reality on geometric shapes 2024-05-23T14:44:50+03:00 Ali Bin Almur Bin Said Alsaaidi Fahed Moossa Anas Albahri Rahim Kouki <p>The application of augmented reality on geometric shapes revolutionizes the learning of mathematics by offering an interactive and immersive approach. Using this technology, students can visualize and manipulate geometric shapes in their real-world environment, making the abstract concepts of geometry more concrete and accessible. Augmented reality also allows for personalization of learning by adapting activities to the individual needs of students. By integrating augmented reality into the teaching of geometric shapes, educators can stimulate students' interest in mathematics and promote the development of essential skills such as problem solving and spatial thinking.</p> 2024-05-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Numerical Accuracy of different types of Linear and Non-Linear Fractional Differential Equations by using Adomian Decomposition method 2024-05-26T18:30:57+03:00 Aachal Mishra Najmuddin Ahmad <p>The paper proposes the Adomian Decomposition Method for fractional Differential Equations. The study presented an iterative scheme for a linear and non -linear system of equation scheme for a linear. We introduce new approaches to study of numerical accuracy of linear and non-linear fractional differential equation by using Adomian Decomposition method. Through the numerical test, we can find that the Adomian decomposition method is a powerful tool for solving linear and non-linear fractional differential equations. The numerical results also show the efficiency of this method. The solutions are derived in convergent series form which shows the effectiveness of the method for solving a wide variety of fractional differential equations. All calculation performed by MATLAB Version 2020.</p> 2024-05-26T18:30:56+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Chorioamnionitis management Challenges, expectations, and reality - A descriptive study at maternity in Tunisia 2024-06-05T10:12:22+03:00 Radhouane Achour Hajer Chourou Emna Ammar Hiba Mkadmi Sana Larbi Rim Ben Aziza Myriam Cheour <p>About 2-5% of pregnancies face a chorioamnionitis risk, which can be fatal, if coupled with preterm birth.&nbsp;The new discussions offer the word 'Triple I' that improves the accuracy and management of investigations.&nbsp;Nevertheless, its study is still limited in Tunisia.<br>The objective of this study was to establish the diagnostic and therapeutic management of chorioamnionitis in pregnant women at various gestational ages and to determine the maternal and fetal consequences.</p> <p><strong>METHODS</strong></p> <p>This descriptive and retrospective longitudinal study was conducted at the Tunis Maternity and Neonatology Center from January 2020 to December 2021.&nbsp;All pregnant patients admitted to Services A and D were included in the study if the diagnosis of chorioamnionitis was made either in the emergency department or during hospitalization, regardless of the gestational age and the initial reason for hospitalization. Data were anonymously collected and analyzed looking at the mothers’ and newborns’ outcomes.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <p>In 3280 hospitalizations, chorioamnionitis was in 1.4%.&nbsp;The majority of my patients were from the age group of primigravida (63%) and primiparous (69.5%).&nbsp;The mean diagnostic gestational age was 36.8 weeks.&nbsp;Diagnosis was performed based on clinical signs, which accounted for 80.4% of cases during hospitalization.&nbsp;Prominent clinical features include ruptured membranes in 76% cases, tinted amniotic fluid in 15.2%, maternal fever in 21.7% cases, uterine contractions in 52.1%, non-reassuring fetal heart rate recording in three patients (32%), and maternal tachycardia in two patients (4.3%). The most frequent association of symptoms observed was membranes rupture and fever (73.9%).&nbsp;Antibiotic therapy and pregnancy termination were the standard practice, and 32.6% of patients received corticosteroids.&nbsp;This included the cesarian section in 89.13% of the cases.&nbsp;The maternal complications comprised of endometritis (2.2%) and postpartum hemorrhage (2.2%).&nbsp;Neonatal mortality was 19.6% only, where the mortality rates were decreasing with increasing gestational age.&nbsp;The main adverse neonatal outcomes were pre-maturity (50%) and respiratory distress (30.6%).<br><br>The study reveals that duration of hospital stay has a statistically meaningful relation to the time between the admission and diagnosis of chorioamnionitis (p = 0.004). The association between the Apgar score and fetal heart monitoring was not found to be of statistical significance (p = 0.760). This rate of neonatal death and complication was significantly affected by the birth weight and gestational age (p&lt;0.001). The duration of hospital stays differed according to gestational age, with the advanced gestational ages related to the shorter hospital periods (Rho=-0.391, p=0.008).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>The treatment of chorioamnionitis at the Tunis Maternity and Newborns Center is multifaceted and includes early diagnosis, antibiotic therapy, and pregnancy termination. There is an impact of gestational age on the maternal and neonatal outcomes hence early screening and management becomes imperative. This study underlines that there is a requirement for additional studies and standardized management approach for chorioamnionitis, to address resource challenges effectively.</p> 2024-05-11T13:59:57+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review Marketing and Communication Strategies: A Case Study of Student Recruitment at Selected Public Universities 2024-05-11T14:09:43+03:00 Chulumanco Mgweba Veena Rawjee Paulene Naidoo <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Higher education faces challenges in attracting first-time students due to market forces and revenue competition. Recruiting first-time university students is a challenge for higher education recruiters in attracting and enrolling students effectively.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong><strong>: </strong>Increased competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) requires competitive marketing and communication recruitment strategies. The study aimed to analyse the role of marketing and communication strategy in student recruitment. A qualitative study of two public universities in South Africa's Eastern Cape province revealed competition among institutions for first-year students.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Universities use a mix of traditional and technology-based communication strategies, with print media, digital media, newspapers, brochures, and social media being the most effective.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study suggests incorporating competitive marketing and communication intelligence strategies to boost student recruitment and regularly revise marketing communication tools to gain a competitive advantage and market share.</p> 2024-05-11T14:09:42+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Transylvanian Review