Transylvanian Review <p>The journal publishes original papers in all areas of science, engineering and technology (Sport Sciences, Accounting, Medicine and Physics, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, law scope, Agricultural Sciences, Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Psychological and Educational Sciences, Statistics, Management, Economics and Financial Economics).</p><p> </p> en-US Transylvanian Review 1221-1249 Molecular characters of parasitic-nematode (Xiphinema index) using 18S rDNA from regions of Iran <p>Aim: This molecular study was conducted in 2022 at the University of Limpopo to identify the plant-parasitic nematodes identified from Iran soil causing yield loss in crops and trees. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The recovered nematode was extracted using the tray method, and then its DNA was extracted using the Chelex method. Afterward, 18S rDNA was amplified using specific primers to identify the nematode. <strong>Results: </strong>The Nblast analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA showed 99% similarity with a population of <em>Xiphinema index </em>(JQ026520) from Iran (Kerman Province). In addition, phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method as implemented in mega x software was done. The phylogenetic analysis put the Iranian populations of <em>X. index </em>together with another <em>X. index </em>with a 100-bootstrap value. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Despite 18S rDNA are a helpful marker for <em>X. index</em> identification, however, this species' diversity needs to be investigated to determine the impact of this nematode on the yield loss of the crops associated with it.</p> Mehrnoush Aminisarteshnizi Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-09-28 2022-09-28 30 2 Computational analysis for optimum multiphase flowing bottom-hole pressure prediction <p>Computer intelligent models are the order of the day for the manipulation of data to better understand the trend of complex situations under the questioned industry. The petroleum engineering is faced with multiple datasets from production logging tools and predictive analysis without these computer intelligent tools can be devastating. Errors of margins under these circumstances cannot be easily prevented, which may lead to some biases in the decision-making processes, thereby affecting the cost of operations and services in the industry.<strong> </strong>This study used an open-source dataset from a production well logging tool to evaluate and affirm the accuracy of a computer intelligent model, suitable for processing complex problems. However, an artificial neural network under the feedforward function and a model fitting-multilinear regression were used for this predictive analysis. Conclusively, the predictive analysis, whiles considering the coefficient of determination for these two models resulted that, the artificial neural network- feedforward function was better in predicting the flowing bottom-hole pressures than the multilinear regression. Multiphase flow under bottom-hole pressures can further be computed using CFD to determine variations of pressure drops, predicting flow patterns and geometry to enhance prudent decision-making analysis.<strong></strong></p> Ugochukwu I. Duru Dennis Delali Kwesi Wayo Reginald Ogu Chindera Cyril Happiness Nnani Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-08-28 2022-08-28 30 2 Nexus between Technical Efficiency and Market Competition in the Banking Sector: Revisiting Economic Performance and Risk Evaluation This study examined the impact of risk and competition on the technical efficiency of the Pakistani banks. Technical efficiency and its components are measured with The Data envelopment analysis (DEA) based CCR and BCC models. The Lerner index is used to measure competition among the Pakistani banks. For econometric estimation, the bootstrap truncated regression is used. The results of the study showed that the competition, risk, size, taxation, diversification, operational cost management, banking development, trade openness and infrastructure development significantly affected the Technical efficiency. The comparative study indicates that the state-owned banks have higher technical efficiency than the private, foreign and Islamic banks. Faluk Shair Sun Shaorong Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 30 2 A critical reflecting on the teaching and learning agenda at a higher education institution in South Africa The paper provides the author’s teaching philosophies and the applicable teaching and learning theories to the author’s discipline and research field. In summary, the paper provides a critical refection on the teaching and learning agenda at a higher education (HE) institution in South Africa. The HE institution referred to in the study is categorised under the historically disadvantaged institutions (HDIs) according to the South African colonial history context. Details of the author’s agential roles in the HE institution are provided in the study, together with structural-cultural traditions of the HE institution. A number of suggested improvements are provided in the study based on a theoretically informed position aimed to impact on student success. The paper culminates with some concluding remarks supported with areas for future research. Daniel Maposa Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 30 2 Technological influence in changing the higher education environment: Developmental & transformative potential, and challenges for the African context This study provides a reflection on how technology is changing the higher education (HE) curricula and environment, its developmental and transformative potential, and challenges for the South African and/or African context, as well as the need for re-designing the curricula in line with new technologies in HE in these challenging times of the coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19). In particular, the HE case study in this paper will be constrained to a certain HE institution although it can be generalised to other HE institutions curricula in South Africa and other African countries, particularly, in the fields of mathematics and statistics. Some knowledge paradigms and learning theories are provided in this study, as well as a reflection on re-designing of the HE curriculum as influenced by ICT. The study provides a discussion on blended learning HE curriculum design which involves both face-to-face and digital technology (online learning) as modes of delivery. The study further discusses the challenges and opportunities of incorporating digital technology in the HE mathematical statistics curriculum design. The study culminates with an application of connectivism to the mediation of the HE curriculum. Daniel Maposa Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 30 2 Separation at Source Waste Recycling Programme in the City of Johannesburg, South Africa <p><strong>Aim</strong></p><p>South African municipalities face a challenge in managing solid waste and recycling is important in alleviating the current strain on waste management services. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges faced regarding the separation at source (S@S) programme by a major municipality in South Africa.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p><p>A qualitative study was conducted among a purposeful sample of 15 employees of a Separation at Source (S@S) recycling project in the City of Johannesburg (CoJ), South Africa. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Findings </strong></p><p>Four major themes and several sub-themes emerged for an analysis of the data, namely, recycling regulations, recycling participation rates, recycling behaviours and recycling challenges. Recycling behaviour emerged as the most important theme in this study and attitudes to recycling was the most important sub-theme.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p>These findings will benefit the CoJ since it provides insights into the challenges faced when implementing waste management programmes. It is recommended that the CoJ provide structure and support to employees responsible for the implementation of recycling programmes to ensure optimal outcomes. It should also increase efforts at creating greater awareness of the importance of recycling and invest in educational campaigns targeted at teaching residents the importance of recycling and how to recycle effectively. Moreover, the CoJ should create strategies to ensure that recycling is convenient for residents and the effort and time taken to recycle must be minimized. Most importantly, the CoJ should increase recycling rates by encouraging organizations and institutions to implement S@S in the workplace. Krishna K. Govender Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 30 2 Free-living nematode associated with almond (Prunus Dolcis Mill.) orchards and the effect of soil chemical properties on their diversity <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Free-living nematodes are an important group for the soil biodiversity. Free-living can be classified as bacterivores, fungivores, omnivores, and predators and thus contribute to fundamental ecological processes in the soil, such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Seven nematode species were identified from the soil samples during a survey on free-living nematodes in five almond (<em>Prunus dolcis Mill</em>.) orchards. The samples were collected across the orchards in the central part of Iran. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of the 15 soil samples collected in 2017, the most prevalent nematodes encountered were <em>Cephalobus persegnis</em> (2345), <em>Butlerius butleri </em>(560), and <em>Panagrolaimus rigidus </em>(230). The CCA results indicated that<em> C. persegnis, B. butleri, </em>and<em> Mesorhabditisi </em>sp. were more affected on K%, Ca%, Carbon%, Silt%, and Clay% found in Kharaji Teshneez orchards. However, <em>P. rigidus</em>, <em>Aporcelaimellus </em>sp<em>., Prismatolaimus </em>sp., and <em>Geomonhystera </em>sp. were dominant in substrates characterized by Na%, pH (KCl), Mg%, and Sand% in Saman, Chelvan, and ChamAli orchards. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The diversity of free-living nematodes in Saman, ChamAli, and Chelvan was higher than in other orchard localities. Many free-living nematodes on the rhizosphere of almond tress may be due to the regular application of organic manure.</p> Mehrnoush Aminisarteshnizi Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-09-28 2022-09-28 30 2 Closed-Form Solution of European Option under Fractional Vasicek Model <span>This paper specifically deals with how the powerful tools of fractional calculus are applied to compute European option prices under the Fractional Vasicek Model.</span> Seham Al. Roweathi Mohamed Kharrat Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 30 2 Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among nurses in Jordan <p><strong>Background</strong>: Nurses are the most important healthcare professionals performing wide range of physical tasks that puts them at risk of developing various musculoskeletal conditions. Low back pain is one the most common musculoskeletal problem experienced among nurses.</p><p> <strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of low back pain among nurses in Jordan and to determine the associated risk factors and consequences.</p><p><strong> Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 526 nurses working in various government and non-government healthcare settings in Jordan. A modified version of The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire was used to obtain the information about demographic data, work related activities and details on low back pain.</p><p> <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 374 (71.1%) of the nurses experienced low back pain of which 58.6% classified their pain as acute, and 68% of the nurses evaluated their pain as "moderate and severe". It was determined that 56.6% of nurses working in in-patient departments had higher average of pain scores. The results also revealed that the factors significantly associated with low back pain among nurses included: Age, experience, working setting, duration of low back pain, nature of job, and number of working hours.</p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The high prevalence of low back pain requires the need for nurses and managers to enhance risk awareness, improve physical and psychosocial working conditions, and promote a safer work environment. Salameh Al Dajah Mohammad O. Abu-Hasheesh Muhammed Al-Jarrah Sunitha Bhagavathi Mysore Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 30 2 Assessment Instrument Validation of the Sbar Technique as a Clinical Communicative Skill in Nursing Professionals in Training Aim: Clinical simulation (CS) is key to achieving graduation profile of students, this has prompted teaching to generate standardized instruments to assess the achievement of trained skills and competencies, since CS facilitates their transfer. The development of communication skills is fundamental in health professionals and one of the recommended techniques to organize this process is SBAR (Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation). However, no validated instruments are known to assess the achievement of communication competencies. Materials and methods: The methodology considered four stages. Literature review, the basic criteria of the instrument were established according to 65% agreement of the reviewed authors. Judgment by internal experts, who review the initial instrument and make observations. Judgment by external experts, who review the completed items and make suggestions. And pilot, where the instrument is tested on thirty-seven students. Results: Ten criteria were eliminated in the first and second stages. After the validation of external experts, the wording of some criteria was modified according to observations of content, clarity and relevance, obtaining the instrument for piloting. The statistical analysis of the pilot was done in Excel, the answers of the 37 students in the 35 total criteria of the instrument, obtaining that the instrument has a high internal consistency, obtaining a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83. Conclusion: A validated instrument will standardize the evaluation of the delivery of information with SBAR in nursing students, allowing conclusions to be drawn and facilitating decision-making in relation to the training requirement of these poorly studied communication skills in CS. Palma Guerra Claudia Andrea Vega Retamal Cynthia Fabiola Jaramillo Larson María Dolores Bustamante Andrade María Fabiola Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 30 2 Effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions on the clinical outcome of COVID-19 severe infection <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Coronavirus is a pathogen that is responsible for the outbreak is the severe acute respiratory syndrome&nbsp;coronavirus 2&nbsp;(SARS‑CoV‑2). This study investigated laboratory findings and the effect of different drugs on the survival of COVID-19 patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>This was a retrospective single center study of 203 COVID19 inpatients. Patients included in this study were adults with moderate to severe COVID-19 symptoms including respiratory manifestations.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Among 203 patients 88(43.3%) died while 115 (56.7%) survived. Among 65 patients on Favipiravir, 39 of patients died. Mortality in patients taking Azithromycin, Meropenem, Ceftriaxone and Linezolid were 28%, 64.2%, 23.9% and 65% respectively. Imipenem-Cilastatin Sodium was administered by 14 patients, only 4 of those were recovered. Fifty-seven patients on azithromycin survived and 16 died, while 88% out of the 25 patients taking Moxifloxacin survived. Survival in the 48 patients taking vancomycin was 20.8%. There was a significant difference between survival and death in all laboratory parameters. Statistical analysis also showed independent predictors of mortality per drug. Higher survival rates were also noted in patients on Dexamethasone, but not in hydrocortisone or prednisolone. The use of Enoxaparin, rather than clopidogrel, aspirin or heparin was also shown to be related to lower mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The data gives an overview about the pharmacological management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The study findings might help to identify the drugs with positive outcome and lower mortality.</p> Amer Ayed Alahmadi Najwa Mahmoud Almaghrabi Waleed Talal Obaid Maisaa Muhammad A. Kulaib Ahmad Hamed AlAhmadi Talal Abdullah Mashour Sami Suwaylih Salih Alharbi Sami Dakhel A Al-Maghthawy Mansour Mahmoud Adam Mahmoud Nader Namazi Abdullah Qabl Alsaedi Ahmed Abdulrahman Alsobhi Rania K. Alharbi Ahmed Aldhafiri Hossein Mostafa Elbadawy Copyright (c) 2022 Transylvanian Review 2022-09-28 2022-09-28 30 2 South African Bank Consumers’ Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility <p>Aim</p> <p>The research addressed South African bank consumers’ perception of CSR, and the relationship between a bank’s CSR efforts and consumers’ bank choice.</p> <p>Method and Materials</p> <p>A survey was conducted among a convenience sample of bank customers. A link was posted on the researcher’s social media pages and emailed to peers at work and the university where the researcher was a student. The survey included questions which required respondents to rank on a scale of 1-5, statements related to each CSR category.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>It became evident that contrary to Carroll’s CSR framework/pyramid, South African consumers perceive CSR in the following order: Legal, Economic, Philanthropic and Ethical, which could be influenced by inter-alia, South African legislation such as Black Economic Empowerment, the King Code of Corporate Governance and because South African consumers perceive philanthropic responsibilities to be more important than ethical ones. The only CSR category which had a partial influence on consumer support, was philanthropic responsibilities, which is in line with the notion that philanthropy is more highly valued in developing countries.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>South African banks can use the findings from this study to better allocate their CSR resources.</p> N. Hoadley K. K. Govender Copyright (c) 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 30 2