Understanding learners’ satisfaction in metaverse's online PE class: Exploring presence, usability, and enjoyment as key factors
AbstractDespite the increasing use of metaverse technology in practical subjects such as physical education (PE), the application of metaverse technology to achieve learning outcomes such as learners’ satisfaction is mostly limited to theoretical courses. Therefore, in this study, virtual yoga class was used as an example of online PE class to investigate the impact of presence, usability, and enjoyment on learner satisfaction. A survey was conducted with 202 respondents and analysed using the structural equation model to extract insights. Results showed that the construct validity for questionnaires and a reasonable model fit were confirmed, and that presence showed a statistically significant effect on educational satisfaction through the mediating path of enjoyment even though it did not have a significant effect on educational satisfaction directly. In conclusion, educational satisfaction of learners in PE course using metaverse technology cannot be satisfied only with the sense of presence, the reality of performing physical activity, and the enjoyment through physical activity is necessary for learners’ satisfaction even in the virtual environment.
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