Epidemiological profile of urolithiasis in children in western Algeria

  • A. ATTAR
  • A. ADDOU


Background. - Few data exist in Algeria on urolithiasis in general, and those of the child in particular. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric urolithiasis. Materials and methods. - This descriptive study of the transversal type aimed at 127 children (2 months - 17,5 years) with urolithiasis. Data were collected on sociodemographic parameters, clinical data, background, urinary parameters and stones. Results. - The sex ratio was 1.6 and the mean age was 6.4 years (2 months-17.5 years). 23.6% and 12.6% of children were respectively underweight and overweight. 74.8% came from urban boroughs, 65.4% had a mother with a low educational level. The consanguinity rate and family history of urolithiasis were 26.8% and 43.3% respectively, while 15.7% had recurrences. The main presenting symptoms were abdominal/flank pain (63%) and urinary tract infection (43.3%). 15.3% of stones were located in the bladder. Open surgery involved 36.1% of the stones and modern technics 5.6%. Urinary pH varied from 4.8 to 7.9, urinary density from 1000 to 1070 and urinary volume from 50 to 2000 ml/24h. Crystalluria was positive in 88.9% of the urines. Struvite, urinary infection index, was the most common component of stones with 28.3%, but was present in 47.8%. Calcium oxalate was found in 45.6% of stones (23.9% whewellite, 21.7% weddellite), followed by carbapatite and cystine in 8.7% each, urates in 6.5% and uric acid in 2.2%. Conclusion. - Urinary infection was the main etiology of urolithiasis in children.