Assessment Instrument Validation of the Sbar Technique as a Clinical Communicative Skill in Nursing Professionals in Training

  • Palma Guerra Claudia Andrea Centro de Simulación clínica, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomas, Chile.
  • Vega Retamal Cynthia Fabiola Centro de Simulación clínica, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomas, Chile.
  • Jaramillo Larson María Dolores Hospital Dr. Mauricio Heyermann, Ángol, Chile.
  • Bustamante Andrade María Fabiola Centro de Simulación clínica, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomas, Chile.
Keywords: Clinical Simulation, SBAR, Nursing student, Instrument validation


Aim: Clinical simulation (CS) is key to achieving graduation profile of students, this has prompted teaching to generate standardized instruments to assess the achievement of trained skills and competencies, since CS facilitates their transfer. The development of communication skills is fundamental in health professionals and one of the recommended techniques to organize this process is SBAR (Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation). However, no validated instruments are known to assess the achievement of communication competencies. Materials and methods: The methodology considered four stages. Literature review, the basic criteria of the instrument were established according to 65% agreement of the reviewed authors. Judgment by internal experts, who review the initial instrument and make observations. Judgment by external experts, who review the completed items and make suggestions. And pilot, where the instrument is tested on thirty-seven students. Results: Ten criteria were eliminated in the first and second stages. After the validation of external experts, the wording of some criteria was modified according to observations of content, clarity and relevance, obtaining the instrument for piloting. The statistical analysis of the pilot was done in Excel, the answers of the 37 students in the 35 total criteria of the instrument, obtaining that the instrument has a high internal consistency, obtaining a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83. Conclusion: A validated instrument will standardize the evaluation of the delivery of information with SBAR in nursing students, allowing conclusions to be drawn and facilitating decision-making in relation to the training requirement of these poorly studied communication skills in CS.


Aiken, L. (2003). Tests psicológicos y evaluación. (11 ed.). México: Pearson Educación.

Amick, A., Feinsmith, S., Davis, E., Sell, J., Macdonald, V., Trinquero, P., & Barsuk, J. (2021). Simulation-Based Mastery Learning Improves Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion Skills of Practicing Nurses. Simulation in Healthcare, 1-8.

Brosed, C., Garcés, P., González, B., Francisco, A., & Tomé, A. (2015). Transfer of patients IDEAS/SAER. D-4 Workshop. . Aragón España.: D-4 Taller.

Chen, J., Mistry, K., Wright, M., & Turner, D. (August 2010). Postoperative Handoff Communication: A Simulation-Based. Simulation in healthcare: journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, 5(4), 242–247. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e3181e3bd07

Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (2015). Communication in clinical handover: improving the safety and quality of the patient experience. J Public Health Res, 17(4).

Gaba, D. (2004). The future vision of simulation in healthcare. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 2-10.

Garfjeld-Roberts, P., Alvand, A., Gallieri, M., Hargrove, C., & Rees, J. (2019). Objectively Assessing Intraoperative Arthroscopic Skills Performance and the Transfer of Simulation Training in Knee Arthroscopy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. . Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery,, 1-13.

Institute for Helathcare, I. (n.d). Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Retrieved December 2022, from

Joint Comission International. (2018). Communicating clearly and effectively to patients.

Joint Commission Internacional. (2018). Communicating clearly and effectively to patients. How to overcome common communication challenges in health care. Retrieved November 21, 2021, de

Joint Committe Standarse for Ed. Evaluation. (2015). Classroom assessment standards: Practices for PreK-12 teachers. Sage.

Juárez Hernandez, L., & Tobón, S. (2018). Análisis de los elementos implicitos en la validación de contenido de un instrumento de investigación. Espacios, 23-29.

Juguera Rodríguez, L., Diaz Aguea, J. L., Perez Lapuente, M. L., Leal Costa, C., Rojo Rojo, J., & Echeverría Pérez, P. (2014). La simulación clínica como herramienta pedagógica: percepción de los alumnos de grado en enfermería en la UCAM. Enfermería Global , 13(33), 175-180. Retrieved March 2, 2022, from

Kamath, S. H. (2016). Operating Room to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Handoff: Improving Communication and Team Relations While Driving Process Improvement. Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Care. doi:10.24966/ACC-8879/100017

Kattan, E., De la Fuente, R., Putz, F., Vera, M., Corvetto, M., Inzunza, O., & Bravo, S. (2021). Simulation-Based Mastery Learning of Bronchoscopy-Guided Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy Competency Acquisition and Skills Transfer to a Cadaveric. Simulation in Healthcare, , 157-162.

Logishetty, K., Gofton, W., Rudran, B., Beaulé, P., & Cobb, J. (2020). Fully Immersive Virtual Reality for Total Hip Arthroplasty Objective Measurement of Skills and Transfer of Visuospatial Performance. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1-11.

López, R., & Avello-Martínez, R. (2019). Validación de instrumentos como garantía de la credibilidad en las investigaciones científicas. Revista cubana de medicina militar. Retrieved May 09, 2022, from

Lozano, D. &. (2020). Protocolo de herramientas de comunicación en uci pediátrica. SECIP.

Machuca, F., Maldonado, M., Guiñez, J., Villanueva, C., & Calquín , F. (2018). Creation and validation of content of the scale of evaluation of the delivery of information in nursing through SBAR. III Congress of clinical simulation and safety of the pac. III Congress of clinical simulation and patient safety SOCHISIM. Temuco.

Mastaglia, B., Toye, C., & Kristjanson, L. (2003). Ensuring content validity in instrument development: Challenges and innovative approaches. Contemporary Nurse, 281-291. Retrieved January 7, 2022, from

NHS England and NHS Improvement. (2021). SBAR communication tool. Online library of quality, service improvement and redesign tools. Retrieved October 13, 2021, from

Noble Compañía de Seguros. (2013). Standardize the information to be transmitted in patient consultations and transfers. The SBAR technique (SAER). Obtained from

Oviedo, H. C., & Campo-Arias, A. (2005). Aproximación al uso del coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach. Revista colombiana de Psiquiatría, 34(4), 572-580. Retrieved March 7, 2022, from

RNAO. (2014). Care Transitions clinical best practice guidelines. Ontario.

Spooner , A. J., Aitken, L. M., Corley, A., & Chaboyer, W. (February 2017). Developing a minimum dataset for nursing team leader handover in the intensive care unit: A focus group study. Aust Crit Care, 1, 47-52. doi:10.1016/j.aucc.2017.01.005

The INACSL Standards Committee. (December 2017). INACSL standards of best practice: Simulation sm: Operations. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13(12), 681-687. doi:

Verd-Aulí, X., & Maqueda-Palau, M. (2022). Analysis of a structured communication model during shift changes and interdisciplinary sessions. Evidentia, 29. Obtained from

World Health Organization, &. T. (2007). Preámbulo a las soluciones para la seguridad del paciente. Obtained from

Yusef-Contreras, V., Sanhueza- Ríos, G., & Seguel-Palma,, F. (2021). Importance of clinical simulation in the personal development and performance of the nursing student. Ciencia Y Enfermería, 27. doi: